Desigualdad horizontal en la transición a la educación secundaria superior en España

Autores/as

Resumen

La teoría de la desigualdad efectivamente mantenida postula que la reducción de la desigualdad vertical tras la expansión de un nivel educativo se verá compensada por un aumento de la desigualdad horizontal. Aunque esta teoría ha sido intensamente estudiada en varios países, apenas ha sido explorada en el caso español. Para llenar este vacío, utilizo datos de la Encuesta de transición educativa-formativa e inserción laboral y analizo la muestra de estudiantes que terminaron la educación secundaria obligatoria en 2001, justo después de la expansión de la educación secundaria superior en España. Estudio dos formas de desigualdad horizontal: el tipo de enseñanza cursada (que incluye la modalidad preferida en el itinerario académico) y el tiempo invertido en la finalización del itinerario académico. Demuestro que la saturación del bachillerato en la elección frente a la formación profesional desencadenó desigualdades sustanciales en la preferencia por las modalidades de bachillerato más atractivas: los estudiantes de extracción social alta prefirieron Ciencias Naturales y Tecnología, mientras que los estudiantes desfavorecidos prefirieron Ciencias Sociales, Artes y Humanidades. A su vez, la desigualdad en el tiempo invertido en la finalización del bachillerato es mayoritariamente vertical, ya que los dos resultados más probables para todos los grupos socioeconómicos son terminar el bachillerato en dos años o no terminarlo.

Palabras clave

desigualdad efectivamente mantenida, transiciones educativas, desigualdad horizontal, educación secundaria superior, itinerario académico, itinerario profesional

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Publicado

22-04-2022

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